Interventions

The Center for Resilient Families aims to advance several evidence-based parenting programs, in order to improve outcomes for children who have been exposed to traumatic stress.

  1. Parent Management Training — Oregon Model (PMTO) for traumatized families
  2. After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT)
  3. Criando con Amor, Promoviendo Armonia y Superacion (CAPAS)
  4. Family Check-Up (FCU)
  5. Family Bereavement Program (FBP)

Parent Management Training — Oregon Model (PMTO) for traumatized families

This intervention engages parents and adult caregivers to strengthen resilience of children from preschool to adolescence.

Full description: GenerationPMTO,  listed as an effective program on the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP), engages parents/adult caregivers as the agents of change to strengthen resilience of children from preschool to adolescence. The intervention can be delivered in individual family (treatment) or multi-family group (prevention) formats. Prevention groups consist of 14 weekly sessions, approximately 90-to-120 minutes in length, while individual family treatment ranges anywhere from 4–9 months (weekly sessions, 45–60 minutes in length). GenerationPMTO can be delivered in homes, clinics, schools, or community settings.

The program was developed by Drs. Marion Forgatch and Gerald Patterson and their colleagues at Oregon Social Learning Center. It has been extensively validated for a range of families around the world. In collaboration with Drs. Forgatch and Patterson, Dr. Gewirtz and her colleagues have modified and evaluated PMTO among diverse families affected by traumatic stress, including Somali refugee families and families in shelters. Research evaluating PMTO for traumatized families—i.e., military families exposed to the deployment of a parent, refugee families, and families affected by domestic violence and homelessness — has shown positive outcomes.

Learn more on the PMTO website.

After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT)

The ADAPT intervention was developed to support parenting and resilience among military families coping with the stress of deployment and reintegration.

Full description: ADAPT is a PMTO program for military families and was originally developed for National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) families, as these families face disparities in access to military-sensitive trauma-informed services, and NG/R service members are at higher risk for mental health problems including suicide. ADAPT has been tested in three randomized trials, two of which are complete, with almost 500 families in total. An RCT evaluating a 14-session group-based ADAPT with 336 families showed that the program improved parents’ parenting (observed and reported), children’s emotional and behavioral adjustment (i.e., PTSD, depression, school, peer, and behavior problems) one year later. These improvements were mediated by improved parenting efficacy at post-test. These improvements in parenting efficacy also reduced parents’ own depression, PTSD symptoms and suicidality at 12 months. ADAPT is also available in online (self-directed) and telehealth (facilitator-directed) formats. An RCT of online ADAPT showed it to be effective in improving parents’ efficacy, parenting, and child adjustment.

Learn more on the ADAPT website.

CAPAS

CAPAS is a culturally-adapted version of the original PMTO intervention for Spanish-speaking Latino/a immigrants

Full description: The Spanish version of PMTO is titled “CAPAS: Criando con Amor, Promoviendo Armonia y Superacion” (Raising Children with Love, Promoting Harmony and Self-Improvement[25]. The original PMTO content was culturally-adapted to be implemented with Spanish-speaking Latino/a immigrants. CAPAS harnesses culture as a source of resilience, including sessions addressing Latino parenting values, and becoming a bicultural family, immigration stress,  and coping with racism. A random-control test of CAPAS was carried out with low-income first generation Latino Spanish-speaking parents. High satisfaction and an 87% overall retention rate of participating families was achieved including a retention rate of 85% for fathers.

Learn more here.

Family Check-Up (FCU)

The Family Check-Up intervention encourages improved family management through motivational interviews.

Full description: The FCU is a motivational interviewing intervention aimed at engaging families and encouraging improved family management. The FCU has two phases: (i) a 3-session intervention to guide and motivate support for specific family management practices, and (ii) a 12-module curriculum addressing the caregiving environment; the level of support provided is titrated to the individual needs and preferences of the family. The FCU has been delivered to families at high risk for trauma exposure including parents living in poverty in rural, urban, and suburban settings; random-control testing (RCT) data indicate that FCU reduced problem behavior in children, maternal and child depression, and parents’ use of coercion, improving children’s school readiness, with some of these effects lasting up to 5 years. FCU has also been tested in public middle schools, with RCTs showing the program reduces youth antisocial behavior, early drug use, risky sexual behavior, and depression, improving emotional functioning, grades, and attendance in high school. FCU has been scaled up for multiple settings. We propose to extend FCU implementation for juvenile justice personnel to serve parents of traumatized youth in juvenile detention. The motivational interviewing approach and short length make it an appropriate intervention to engage parents of these youth, who may be difficult to reach.

Learn more on the FCU website.

Family Bereavement Program (FBP)

The Family Bereavement Program is designed to promote effective parenting and teach useful coping skills following the death of a parent or caregiver.

Full description: The FBP, designated effective in the Child Trends What Works databank, is designed to promote resilient outcomes of parentally-bereaved youth, with components for caregivers and children (ages 8-16). FPB targets positive parenting practices, caregiver mental health, and youth exposure to negative events. Youth components target relationship quality, positive coping, negative esteem and threat appraisals, adaptive control beliefs, and adaptive emotional expression. The programs consist of 12 two-hour group sessions, with four sessions of conjoint activities for caregivers and youth. The caregiver program includes two 1-hour individual sessions tailored to family needs. RCT data indicate that for families experiencing the violent or sudden death of a parent, the FBP led to improvements in positive parenting, reductions in trauma symptoms in children, and decreased caregiver mental health problems with effects lasting up to 6 years.

Learn more on the FBP website.